Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Click to view this newsletter. Intellectual disabilities (e.g., neurodevelopmental disorders, autism spectrum disorders [ASDs]) are associated with abnormal development of dendrites and dendritic spines. ASDs are a complex set of behaviorally defined disorders, characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and restricted or stereotyped behaviors. Recent studies estimate th...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Figure 1: Schematic representation of the entry points into the MT lumen. Showing, from left to right, a frayed/growing MT plus end capturing TAT and tau molecules, treadmilling, 2 nm2 pores, a 200 nm2 open MT plus end, and a breathing MT lattice. Balabanian et al. recently investigated the functional regulation of kinesin-1 motility using intact microtubules (MTs) in the form of either a singl...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Alpha/beta tubulin heterodimer in complex with tubulin tyrosine ligase, stathmin-4, and the small molecule compound BKM120 (Buparlisib). Bohnacker et al. recently investigated the primary site of action of the anti-cancer therapeutic BKM120 (a.k.a., Buparlisib), a clinically-advanced phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Although PI3K inhibition is considered the primary mechanism of acti...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Click to view this newsletter. The profilin (Pfn) family of proteins were originally characterized and studied as regulators of actin polymerization. First identified in 1976, these small (14-17 kDa) proteins exist as four isoforms in humans (Pfn1-4). Pfn1 is expressed in most cell types, Pfn2 is primarily localized to the brain, and Pfn3 and Pfn4 are localized to the testes. Pfn expression is...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • GTPase target characterization of Ras and Rho GEFs using a GEF-mediated exchange assay with BODIPY-FL-GDP to measure changes in fluorescence emission intensity as fluorescent GDP was competed off by unlabeled 500 µM GTP. Rho GEFs Vav1, Vav2, Tiam1, and hDbs were tested against RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42. GEFs were used at a concentration of 1 µM and GTPases at a concentration of 2 µM. ...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Click to view this newsletter. Acetylation of the epsilon amino group of lysine residues (Nε-acetylation) is an ancient, highly conserved post-translational modification (PTM) that links acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) metabolism and cellular signaling. This occurs largely through the opposing activities of lysine acetyl transferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs). In humans, th...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Bottom: Rho activation in Swiss 3T3 cells. F-actin is visualized with fluorescent green phalloidin staining (Cat.# PHDG1) and nuclear blue DNA staining with Dapi. Cells were activated with Cat.# CN03. Luo et al. recently discovered the novel GTPase activating protein (GAP), ARHGAP42, through a phosphotyrosine proteomics study. ARHGAP42 de-activates multiple Rho family GTPases, in...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Click to view this newsletter. The acetylation post-translational modification (PTM) of tubulin occurs primarily on the lysine at position 40 (Lys40) on the alpha-tubulins of assembled microtubules (MTs). The predominant alpha-tubulin acetyltransferase is TAT1/MEC-17. Deacetylation of acetylated tubulin is mediated by histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) or SIRT2, the mammalian homolog of sil...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Click to view this newsletter. Actin is an integral part of the neuronal cytoskeleton as it is involved in the regulation of neuronal polarization, cell morphology, the development of neuronal processes (i.e., growth cones with lamellipodial and filopodial extensions and dendritic spines), intracellular trafficking, and synaptic plasticity (dynamic changes in dendritic spine number and...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Comparison of BlastR lysis buffer to non-denaturing lysis buffers and detection of total SUMOylation 2/3, acetylation, ubiquitination, and tyrosyl phosphorylation profiles were detected with their respective antibodies. Recently, Horita et al. examined the post-translational modification (PTM) profile changes in the EGFR→Ras→c-Fos signaling pathway in response to EGF stimulat...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Actin and Myosin Interactions Laha et al. recently developed a new thermometric approach for measuring temperature changes of individual proteins on a nanometer (nm) scale. Spatial and temporal resolution of 80 nm and 1 mK, respectively, was achieved by attaching 2 nm cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) directly to bovine cardiac and rabbit skeletal muscle myosins. The goa...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Click to view this newsletter. The ubiquitin E3 ligase Mdm2 (murine double minute 2; human homolog, Hdm2) is well known for its oncogenic activities and as the master regulator of the powerful tumor suppressor p531,2. Moreover, Mdm2 may function as an oncogenic protein independent of p533. Mdm2 is able to inhibit p53-mediated gene expression through two pathways: inhibition of tran...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Arf activation by wild-type ARNO GEF in MDCK cells.  ARNO proteins localized with a 9e10 anti-myc primary antibody and CY2-conjugated secondary antibody (green).  F-actin labeled with rhodamine-phalloidin (red).  Cells expressing wild-type ARNO protein have robust lamellipodia (arrows).  Scale bar = 50 microns. Image provided by Dr. Lorraine Santy, Penn State University. Recentl...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Click to view this newsletter. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), characterized by their unlimited self-renewal and differentiation potential, have garnered special attention as therapeutics because of their capacity to differentiate into any cells of the respective adult organism1.  There are two general types of PSCs: 1. embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and 2. induced pluripotent stem cells (...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Click to view this newsletter. The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) belongs to the Arf subfamily of Ras superfamily GTPases. Of the three classes of Arf GTPases, Arf6 is the only member of class III and uniquely localizes to the plasma membrane and endosomes, positioning it to regulate cellular processes dependent upon dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton, including e...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • FNR01 image overlay with phase contrast background. Fluorescent fibronectin (Cat. # FNR01) treated MCF10A cells (image kindly provided by A. Varadara and M. Karthykenyan, Univ. S.Carolina, Columbia, SC). Recently, Varadaraj et al. examined transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin (FN). Soluble FN dimers polymerize to for...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Click to view this newsletter.  The phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor supressor protein discovered 20 years ago by two independent laboratories1. PTEN is also known to regulate diverse cellular functions such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, growth, and survival. PTEN is composed of five domains: an N-terminal phosphatidyli...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Model: Profile of PD-L1 post-translational modifications and their roles in regulating PD-L1 protein levels. Recently, Horita et al. profiled four post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein, an important immune checkpoint inhibitor and key target in anti-cancer treatments. Using a set of high-affinity, high-specificity endoge...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Click to view this newsletter.  Worldwide, more than 47 million people have been diagnosed with dementia, and the majority of these cases are caused by Alzheimer’s disease (AD); aside from the social burden, this neurodegenerative disease has an associated cost of 1.09% of the global gross domestic product. Severe cognitive impairment that leads to deficits in skilled movements, languag...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • GDP-K-Ras complexed to a phenol moiety (small arrow head; PDB code 4EPT; 2-hydroxyphenyl)(pyrrolidin-1-yl)methanethione) as described in Sun Q. et al. 2012. Discovery of small molecules that bind to K-Ras and inhibit Sos-mediated activation. Angew Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51, 6140–6143. Recently, Sakamoto et al. discovered novel peptide inhibitors of the G12D mutant K-Ras GTPase. Of ...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Click to view this newsletter.  Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells of the mammalian immune system that exist in either an immature, unactivated state or a mature, activated state. Immature DCs (iDCs) patrol peripheral tissues for foreign and/or pathogenic antigens (i.e., antigen sampling), localizing to sites of inflammation. Once there, iDCs find and internalize antigen...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Composition and architecture of extracellular matrix (ECM). Basement membrane is a type of ECM composed of laminin and collagen IV fibers embedded within a collagen I-enriched ECM. FNR01 image overlay with phase contrast background. Fluorescent fibronectin (Cat. # FNR01) treated MCF10A cells (image kindly provided by A. Varadara and M. Karthykenyan, Univ. S.Carolina, Columbia, S...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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  • Click Here to Download New Products, New Discoveries! Signal Seeker Kits New SUMO Kits and More! GOBlot™ Western Blot Processor New Colors Available! Spirochrome Live Cell Reagents New Far-Red Probes!   Legend: Rac1 GTPase cycle regulation by phosphorylation New SUMO Signal Seeker™ Kit and More! The functional component of the SUMO 2/3 Enrichment Kit is an anti-SUMO-...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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New blog articles detected.

  • Citation Spotlight: Rac1 GTPase activity: Role in Lung Cancer Proliferation, Migration, and Metastasis

    Swiss 3T3 cell stained with anti-vinculin (red), DAPI (blue nucleus) and F-actin is stained with Acti-stain™ 488 (green F-actin stress fibers, Cat.# PHDG1). Recently, Jeganathan et al. examined the role of intersectin-1s (ITSN-1s) in lung cancer proliferation, migration, and metastasis. These cellular processes require actin cytoskeleton re-arrangement typically regulated by...

  • Citation Spotlight: Rho-Family GTPase Activity: Key Components of Anti-Inflammatory and Neuroprotective Pathway

    Rac activation in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. F-actin is visualized with fluorescent green phalloidin staining (Cat.# PHDG1). DAPI is the blue nuclear stain. Phalloidin staining shows F-actin-rich lamellipodia. Cells were activated with Cat.# CN04. Recently, Rom et al. examined molecular pathways involved in leukocyte-mediated neuroinflammation given its causative role in neurona...

  • Custom Services Newsletter: Rho Family GTPases and Central Nervous System Injuries, Diseases, and Disorders

    Click to view this newsletter.  Effective treatments for central nervous system (CNS) injuries, diseases, and disorders remain a serious challenge for preclinical research scientists and clinicians This newsletter discusses some compounds that are in clinical trials or proteins/pathways that warrant consideration as therapeutic targets. Click to read more   Also included in this newslet...

  • November/December Newsletter: Small molecule inhibitors of GEF-mediated GTPase signaling

    Click to view this newsletter.  Ras and Rho-family GTPases regulate multiple cellular processes, including development, growth, motility, intracellular trafficking, gene expression, and the cell cycle1,2. Moreover, dysfunction of these GTPase are correlated with several human diseases (e.g., cancer, neurodegeneration, bacterial pathogenesis)3-5. Like all GTPases, Ras and Rho GTPase...

  • Citation Spotlight: Novel Tubulin Polymerization Inhibitor and Multidrug Resistance

    Crystal structure of tubulin-stathimine-colchicine complex. Recently, Zheng et al. identified and characterized a novel tubulin polymerization inhibitor discovered during anti-cancer compound screenings using the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-mimetic assay. The lead compound was a nitrobenzoate molecule (2-morpholin-4-yl-5-nitro-benzoic acid 4-methylsulfanyl-benzyl ester), d...

  • Citation Spotlight: Rho GTPases and epidermal stem cell migration

    Rho activation in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. F-actin is visualized with fluorescent green phalloidin staining (Cat.# PHDG1). DAPI is the blue nuclear stain. Phalloidin staining shows F-actin-rich stress fibers. Cells were activated with Cat.# CN04. Recently, Zhan et al. investigated the molecular pathways underlying human epidermal stem cell (hESC) migration during wound repair to better ...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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New blog articles detected.

  • September Newsletter: FtsZ Proteins: A Novel Anti-microbial Target

    Click to view this newsletter.  The tubulin homolog FtsZ (Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z) protein is an essential prokaryotic cell divison protein. FtsZ is a GTPase that polymerizes in a nucleotide-dependent manner head-to-tail to form single-stranded filaments that assemble into a contractile ring called the Z-ring. This ring forms on the inside of the cytoplasmic membrane ...

  • Citation Spotlight: Rho GTPases and SNX9: Cancer Cell Invasion and Metastasis

    RhoGAP activity measured as GTP hydrolysis by RhoA protein. Each reaction contained reaction buffer + GTP with the addition of RhoA alone (RhoA), RhoGAP alone (GAP), or RhoA + RhoGAP (RhoA + GAP). Reactions were incubated at 37°C for 20 min. Phosphate generated by hydrolysis of GTP was measured by the addition of CytoPhos™ reagent and reading of absorbance at 650 nm. Recently, ...

Cytoskeleton, Inc
Cytoskeleton, Inc
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New blog articles detected.

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